Oral surgical procedures involve the incision, excision, or reflection of tissue that exposes the normally sterile areas of the oral cavity. Examples are biopsy, periodontal surgery, apical surgery, implant surgery, and surgical extractions of teeth (removal of erupted or nonerupted tooth requiring elevation of mucoperiosteal flap, removal of bone or section of tooth, and suturing if needed).
Oral surgical procedures raise the risk of local or systemic infection because microorganisms from inside or outside the mouth can enter the vascular system and other normally sterile areas of the oral cavity (e.g., bone or subcutaneous tissue). These procedures require a higher level of infection prevention than routine procedures.
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